lesson

Conditional Sentence

Conditional Sentence

Conditional tenses are used to speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, and what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is referred to as “the unreal past” because we use a past tense but we are not actually referring to something that happened in the past. There are 4 types of conditional sentence:

The zero conditional
The zero conditional is used for when the time being referred to is now or always and the situation is real and possible. The zero conditional is often used to refer to general truths/ scientific fact. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word “if” can usually be replaced by the word “when” without changing the meaning.
If clause Main clause
If + Simple present Simple present

Examples:
1. If you heat ice, it melts.
2. If I don’t eat breakfast, I always get hungry during class.
3. If it rains, the grass gets wet.

Type 1 conditional (future meaning)
The type 1 conditional is used to refer to the future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional refers to a possible condition and its probable result.
If clause Main clause
If + Simple present Simple future

Examples:

1. If I am not busy, I will come.
2. If he goes to jakarta, he will visit his uncle.
3. If it rains today, you will get wet.
Type 2 conditional (contrary to the present)
The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used to refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result
If clause Main clause
If + Simple past Past future

Examples:

1. If I got much money, I would buy a new house.
2. If you loved him, he would marry you.
3. If he were here, he would help us.

Type 3 conditional (contrary to the past)
The type 3 conditional is used to refer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary to reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to refer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result
If clause Main clause
If + Past perfect Past future perfect

Exmples:
1. if they had studied hard, they would have passed the exam.
2. if I had received your message, I would have come at once.
3. if you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.

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